Biomechanics scaphoid fractures are commonly the result of a fall on an outstretched hand. Pdf fractures of the scaphoid, diagnosis and managementa. Scaphoid fracture aftercare instructions what you need to. Carpal bone fractures can be difficult to detect on conventional xray and may require ct for diagnosis. Describe plain xray findings consistent with a scaphoid nonunion. Scaphoid fractures symptoms and treatment the hand society. The scaphoid is an obliquely oriented bone located on the radial side of the wrist. There is an ongoing debate on the advantages of screw fixation versus conservative management of nondisplaced scaphoid waist fractures.
Symptoms can include pain and swelling around the wrist. Rehabilitation and return to sport after scaphoid fractures. Fractures involving the carpal bones account for 18% of hand fractures. The scaphoid is the most commonly fractured carpal bone, accounting for approximately 60% of all carpal fractures. Acute fractures of the scaphoid northwestern university. Surgical management of scaphoid fractures can provide significantly. Your fingers or thumb tingle or are numb or cold, or turn blue or white. The frequency of nonunion after this relatively frequent. Diagnosis and management of acute scaphoid fractures. Scaphoid fractures constitute 6070 % of all carpal bone fractures. This procedure is where a bone graft or screws are used to fix your fractured scaphoid bone in your hand.
Management of a 15yearold scaphoid nonunion bmj case reports. If the scaphoid is broken, the few tiny blood vessels that supply the bone with nutrients can be damaged. Mar 25, 20 evidencebased information on management of scaphoid fracture from hundreds of trustworthy sources for health and social care. Fisher from the sydney hospital and the university of new south wales, sydney a new and simple operative technique has been developed to provide rigid internal fixation for all types of fractures of the scaphoid. Management of suspected scaphoid fractures in the ed september 20 6 2. Management of scaphoid fractures with prp 4 th annual.
Summarize the role of vascularized bone grafts for scaphoid nonunion. Klika scaphoid fracturepostoperative management due to poor vascular supply of the proximal scaphoid, nonunion and delayed union of scaphoid fractures are common. This triangular depression is defined by the exten sor and abductors of the thumb, and is easily visible when the wrist is partially ulnar devi ated and the thumb abducted and extended. This type of fracture occurs most often after a fall onto an outstretched hand. Fractures of the scaphoid bone of the carpus are infamous for being difficult both to diagnose and to treat. Primary diagnosis can be difficult, and misdiagnosis with subsequent inadequate treatment often results in a permanently painful wrist with reduced function of the hand. Martin clementson scaphoid fractures treatment and outcome 6. Diagnosis and management of scaphoid fractures, am fam physician.
Consequently, a scaphoid plate can be used to bridge comminution and to neutralize shear forces across an oblique scaphoid fracture. Most surgeons currently recommend operative treatment. Current methods of diagnosis and treatment of scaphoid. Scaphoid fracture is the most commonly fractured carpal bone in the. Current concepts and controversies in scaphoid fracture. Evidencebased information on management of scaphoid fracture from hundreds of trustworthy sources for health and social care. The scaphoid bone is one of the carpal bones in your hand around the area of your wrist. Because of the unique vascularity of the scaphoid bone, a fracture leaves it susceptible to nonunion and avascular necrosis 7,9,17,23,30. The proximal scaphoid is supplied with blood primarily via branches of the radial artery that enter the distal scaphoid and perfuse the proximal pole in a retrograde fashion. It acts as a link between proximal and distal carpal rows. Due to poor vascular supply of the proximal scaphoid, nonunion and delayed union of scaphoid fractures are common.
Depending on the type of fracture, interventions vary from conservative treatment via casting, to open surgery with internal fixation. It is an important carpal bone, bridging the proximal and distal carpal rows. Scaphoid fracture is the most common carpal fracture. Treatment of scaphoid fractures is guided by the location in the bone of the fracture proximal, waist, distal, displacement or instability of the fracture, and patient tolerance for cast immobilization. May 10, 2015 introduction scaphoid is one of the smallest bone of human body. Fracture proximal to the perforating vessels on the dorsoradial surface of the scaphoid can cause significant bone ischemia of the proximal pole. Because blood supply is needed to heal a fracture, the scaphoid often takes a long time a few months to heal. Scaphoid fracture is the most common type of bone fracture in the carpus ie, wrist. Mayo classification of scaphoid fractures radiology.
Perilunate fracture dislocations, although relatively uncommon, may be associated with scaphoid fractures. Bone fractures management and treatment cleveland clinic. Some authors have recommended surgical management of scaphoid fractures, regardless of the. For this type of fracture, your doctor may place your forearm and hand in a cast or a. The scaphoid can be injured when a significant load is placed on the extended wrist, such as a fall onto an outstretched hand. Delayed diagnosis, inadequate initial management, proximal fracture location, osteonecrosis,andassociatedcarpalinstability with acute scaphoid fracture can lead to nonunion of the scaphoid. A bone fracture is usually treated with a cast andor splint. Increased bone resorption and also osteosclerosis can be seen. The longitudinal axis of the scaphoid lies in an anteroposterior plane, perpendicular to the remainder of the carpal bones, in the radially deviated wrist. Because of the scaphoid bones poor blood supply, scaphoid fractures can take a longer time to heal than other fractures. Pdf the scaphoid is vitally important for the proper mechanics of wrist function. Slight osteosclerosis can still be seen in the middle of the scaphoid bone.
Risks of a fractured scaphoid bone there are risks and complications with this procedure. A possible advantage of screw fixation is a reduced time to union, which could. Fracture management overview history who, what, when, where, why o who age, job, hobbies, hand dominance if hand involved, cognition amts score if elderly o what happened and exactly how it happened mechanism of injury force involved likelihood of other structure damage o when it happened o where it happened o why. Scaphoid fractures, a type of wrist fracture, occur most commonly from a fall on the outstretched hand. If you have a scaphoid fracture, you may need to immobilised in a cast for up to six weeks, sometimes up to 12 weeks to allow bone healing. The chart showing pdf series, word series, html series, scan qr codes.
Feb 03, 2020 a scaphoid fracture is a break in one of the small bones of your wrist. The fracture pattern and its relationship to the blood supply have significant implications regarding treatment and. Surgical intervention is often indicated if there are signs that the fracture will not heal with immobilization, the fracture is displaced or the fracture is located in the middle to proximal third of the bone. Cast treatment of nondisplaced scaphoid waist and distal pole fractures is safe, effective, reliable, reproducible. An overview of carpal fractures and distal radius fractures and discussions of how to evaluate wrist or thumb pain in adults are presented separately. The most common cause of a scaphoid fracture is a fall onto an outstretched hand. We have observed that the immobilization time for scaphoid fractures at this clinic is shorter than is usually reported cooney et. The management of scaphoid fractures the importance of scaphoid. Other carpal bones are much less commonly fractured. Displaced fractures of the scaphoid are the most problematic.
Very few false negatives present itself when using mri as a diagnostic tool for scaphoid fracture diagnosis. List the risk factors that predispose a scaphoid fracture to nonunion. The scaphoid is the most commonly fractured carpal bone accounting for 2% of all fractures. The scaphoid tubercle can therefore be easily and accurately palpated on the palmar aspect of the radially deviated wrist. Follow up xrays at 1014 days following injury may be required in those cases where a scaphoid fracture is suspected, but initial xrays have proven inconclusive as a scaphoid fracture can be more easily seen on xray following this time period. Sep 23, 2016 the scaphoid bone is one of the carpal bones in your hand around the area of your wrist. Stress on the scaphoid, due to a forceful motion, may have a fracture as result mostly due to a fall on outstretched arm. Overview diagnosis and tests management and treatment prevention outlook prognosis. Executive summary the guidelines in emergency medicine network gemnet exists to promote best medical practice in a range of conditions presenting to emergency departments eds in the uk.
Various authors differ in their management of the injured wrist, when symptoms have failed to resolve 2 weeks later, and a scaphoid fracture is still suspected. The scaphoid bone is the most com monly fractured carpal bone. The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured carpal bone. Klika scaphoid fracture postoperative management due to poor vascular supply of the proximal scaphoid, nonunion and delayed union of scaphoid fractures are common. It is the most common carpal bone to be fractured, second only to distal radius fractures in wrist injuries and hence diagnosis and treatment of. Management fracture management stages include 4 rs. In the acute setting, a plate can be used for unstable fracture patterns herbert type b. Sep 11, 2019 scaphoid fracture is the most common type of bone fracture in the carpus ie, wrist. This part of the scaphoid bone has a good blood supply, which is necessary for healing.
It is derived from greek word skaphos meaning boat. Many aspects of scaphoid fracture management are still controversial and different institutions vary in their approach. Symptoms generally includes pain at the base of the thumb which is worse with use of the hand. Fracture of the scaphoid bone is the most common fracture of the carpal bones dunn 1972. Displaced scaphoid fractures are seen on radiographs. Fracture of the scaphoid, the most commonly frac tured carpal bone, presents a dilemma for the active athlete and the treating surgeon.
A scaphoid fracture is usually caused by a fall on to an outstretched hand. Magnetic resonance imaging or bone scintigraphy may be useful if the diagnosis remains unclear after. Scaphoid fractures that are closer to the thumb distal pole usually heal in a matter of weeks with proper protection and restricted activity. Delayed diagno sis, inadequate initial management, proximal fracture. Retain to maintain position while healing occurs by internal fixation, external fixation, or conservative methods 4. A scaphoid fracture is a break of the scaphoid bone in the wrist. Follow up xrays at 1014 days following injury may be required in those. This is a small bone in your hand located at the bottom of your. In any case, patients are commonly immobilized in a cast until scaphoid union is observed, which can. An angle stable plate can buttress bone graft, prevent fracture collapse, and provide rotational stability. There is no consensus on the definition of a scaphoid fracture nonunion, which makes comparisons between published articles impossible. Diagnosis and management of scaphoid fractures aafp.
The distal pole of the scaphoid bone is relatively mobile. Pdf fractures of the scaphoid, diagnosis and management. Scaphoid fractures are usually diagnosed by an xray of the wrist. Thus, the general trend is to overtreat patients with a suspicion of scaphoid fracture. Controversies and best practices for acute scaphoid. Pdf management of the fractured scaphoid using a new bone screw.
It is the most common carpal bone to break fracture. The blood supply of the scaphoid comes scaphoid fracture is a common injury encountered in family medicine. Scaphoid fracture aftercare instructions what you need. Tenderness in the anatomical snuff box asb has long been accepted as an indicator of a possible scaphoid fracture. Union of scaphoid waist fractures assessed by ct scan. Also, cases of avn causing collapse and fragmentation of the proximal pole would have been excluded from our study as they are not suitable for bone graft reconstruction of the scaphoid. Scaphoid fracture in the elite athlete hand surgery, pc. Management of suspected scaphoid fractures in the ed.
The diagnostic strategy of suspected scaphoid fractures, however, is surrounded by controversy. The specific blood supply in combination with the demanding functional requirements can easily lead to disturbed fracture healing. It can be difficult to diagnose a scaphoid bone fracture as the break cannot always be seen on an initial xray. Mayo classification of scaphoid fractures divides them into three types according to the anatomic location of the fracture line middle 70% distal 20% proximal 10% fractures of the distal third are further divided into distal articular surface and distal tubercle fractures. A break in the bone that cannot be seen on xray yet is called an occult fracture. Pdf current management of acute scaphoid fractures. Risk factors for scaphoid nonunion are known as location, displacement. Introduction scaphoid is one of the smallest bone of human body. A scaphoid bone fracture can occur at multiple locations within the scaphoid bone. Appropriate management of scaphoid fractures is important because of the risk of long term complications such as delayed or nonunion, pain and disability. Management of suspected scaphoid fractures in the ed september 20 5 1. Fractured wrist symptoms involving a scaphoid fracture may include wrist pain with movement, swelling, and. In case of a proximal scaphoid fracture, the blood.
The initial injury was from a fall onto his outstretched hand. The scaphoid is the most commonly fractured carpal bone. Nonunion rate has been reported around 10 to 15% of scaphoid fractures. Early diagnosis, treatment and management, is important as scaphoid fractures can compromise the blood supply and healing.
Diagnosing and treating scaphoid fractures of the wrist. If you are tender directly over the scaphoid bone which is located in the hollow at the thumb side of the wrist as shown in figure 2, your health care provider might recommend wearing a splint to be safe. Delayed presentation of scaphoid nonunion continues to present significant challenges to hand surgeons. Investigations such as an xray, mri, ct scan or bone scan are usually required to confirm diagnosis. This doctoral dissertation aims to add further knowledge to the research field of scaphoid fractures, and to further improve the treatment and outcome for our patients.
The proximal pole depends on blood supply from the distal pole through the scaphoid bone. Rehabilitate r esuscitate advanced trauma life support. Scaphoid fracture symptoms and scaphoid non unions. Most often, the patient will report radialsided wrist pain with a history of trauma such as a fall on an outstretched hand, an axial load to the wrist, or possibly a twisting injury bond et al. A 30yearold man presented with a symptomatic 15yearold right scaphoid fracture with secondary scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse of his right wrist. List the advanced imaging studies used to evaluate avascular necrosis of the scaphoid proximal pole. If stable fibrous nonunion of the scaphoid occurs, compression screw fixation with or without bone grafting has been shown to be a successful treatment option. Controversies and best practices for acute scaphoid fracture. Due to the importance of scaphoid in wrist mechanics. Symptoms typically include pain and tenderness below the base of the thumb in an area known as the anatomic snuffbox. Scaphoid nonunion affects wrist joint function and is often associated with a predictable pattern of degenerative change.
A scaphoid fracture is a break in one of the small bones of your wrist. Clinical and radiologic outcomes after scaphoid fracture. Diagnosing a scaphoid fracture is the first step in ensuring appropriate management. Reduce if displaced may be by open reduction, closed manipulation, or traction 3. Fractured wrist symptoms involving a scaphoid fracture may include wrist pain with movement, swelling, and tenderness of the hand and wrist on the thumb side of the wrist. This is primarily dependent on the location of the fracture. Fractures of the scaphoid bone are an important and sometimes difficult diagnosis in the emergency department. You have severe pain in your hand or wrist, or your pain worsens. On presentation, he complained of pain in the anatomic stuff box and. A scaphoid fracture is a break in one of the small bones of the wrist. Several articles have been published supporting operative treatment of scaphoid fractures. Non displaced or minimally displaced waist and distal fractures have a high rate of union with closed cast management.
The anatomic location of the scaphoid bone makes it prone to trauma slide 1. Surgical intervention is often indicated if there are signs that the fracture will not heal with. Magnetic resonance imaging for occult scaphoid fracture. Purpose to assess union of scaphoid waist fractures based on computed tomography. Infection can occur, requiring antibiotics and further treatment. Feb 26, 2020 scaphoid fractures with moderate displacement 0. Fractures of the scaphoid bone mainly occur in young adults and constitute 27% of all fractures.
Fisher from the sydney hospital and the university of new south wales, sydney a new and simple operative technique has been developed to provide rigid. Frequently, however, the diagnosis of this scaphoid injury is delayed. Operative fixation of the scaphoid is also commonly utilized in the treatment of open fractures and perilunate fracturedislocations. Imaging and treatment of scaphoid fractures and their. Because of this it is usually treated as broken even if it cant be seen. Diagnosis and management of scaphoid fractures american. A cast or splint will immobilize the bone keep it from moving in.386 1408 1331 1398 1547 213 65 155 883 1102 1293 1207 52 1492 642 199 767 342 318 525 1270 1243 94 516 552 595 1302 5 849 1371 1494 503